Chapter 4: The Teaching Process
The teaching process can be divided into four basic steps: preparation, presentation, application, and review and evaluation.
Preparation of the lesson plan may be accomplished with a syllabus, the PTS, or pre-printed materials, all with general objectives. Performance-based objectives set measurable, reasonable standards that describe the student's desired performance. The three parts of performance-based objectives are description of skill or behavior, conditions, and criteria.
Performance-based objectives expand normal concepts of "objectives" to include conditions and criteria. They also help the student understand the bigger picture, and they involve all three domains of learning (cognitive, affective, psychomotor). Presentation can be done via lecture, demonstration-performance, or guided discussion:
Application allows the student to demonstrate what the instructor has presented. With the instructor's help, students are expected to perform a given task the correct way very early in the process, when habits are formed. Correct performance eventually becomes automatic, while periodic review and evaluation is necessary to eliminate bad habits.
Review and Evaluation is a critical step in the teaching process, requiring the student to demonstrate what has been learned while making them aware of their progress. Failure to make students aware of their progress (or lack of progress) can be a barrier to further instruction. Students are in competition with the ideal of "competency" and can only compare their progress to their instructor. Instructors should guide feedback to goals outlined in the lesson plan.
Review and evaluation should also cover things previously learned, and deficiencies must be corrected, both in review and with remedial training in later lessons.
Flight Instructor Test Questions
Evaluation of student performance and accomplishment during a lesson should be based on objectives and goals established in the lesson plan.