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Five Mile Final | A Flight Instructor's Sandbox


14 CFR Subpart H - Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating

§ 61.185 Aeronautical knowledge.

(a) A person who is applying for a flight instructor certificate must receive and log ground training from an authorized instructor on:

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the fundamentals of instructing, including:

(i) The learning process;
(ii) Elements of effective teaching;
(iii) Student evaluation and testing;
(iv) Course development;
(v) Lesson planning; and
(vi) Classroom training techniques.

(2) The aeronautical knowledge areas for a recreational, private, and commercial pilot certificate applicable to the aircraft category for which flight instructor privileges are sought; and

(3) The aeronautical knowledge areas for the instrument rating applicable to the category for which instrument flight instructor privileges are sought.

(b) The following applicants do not need to comply with paragraph (a)(1) of this section:

(1) The holder of a flight instructor certificate or ground instructor certificate issued under this part;

(2) The holder of a current teacher's certificate issued by a State, county, city, or municipality that authorizes the person to teach at an educational level of the 7th grade or higher; or

(3) A person employed as a teacher at an accredited college or university.

§ 61.187 Flight proficiency.

(a) General. A person who is applying for a flight instructor certificate must receive and log flight and ground training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation listed in this section that apply to the flight instructor rating sought. The applicant's logbook must contain an endorsement from an authorized instructor certifying that the person is proficient to pass a practical test on those areas of operation.

(b) Areas of operation.

(1) For an airplane category rating with a single-engine class rating:

(i) Fundamentals of instructing;
(ii) Technical subject areas;
(iii) Preflight preparation;
(iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be performed in flight;
(v) Preflight procedures;
(vi) Airport and seaplane base operations;
(vii) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(viii) Fundamentals of flight;
(ix) Performance maneuvers;
(x) Ground reference maneuvers;
(xi) Slow flight, stalls, and spins;
(xii) Basic instrument maneuvers;
(xiii) Emergency operations; and
(xiv) Postflight procedures.

(2) For an airplane category rating with a multiengine class rating:

(i) Fundamentals of instructing;
(ii) Technical subject areas;
(iii) Preflight preparation;
(iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be performed in flight;
(v) Preflight procedures;
(vi) Airport and seaplane base operations;
(vii) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(viii) Fundamentals of flight;
(ix) Performance maneuvers;
(x) Ground reference maneuvers;
(xi) Slow flight and stalls;
(xii) Basic instrument maneuvers;
(xiii) Emergency operations;
(xiv) Multiengine operations; and
(xv) Postflight procedures.

(3) For a rotorcraft category rating with a helicopter class rating:

(i) Fundamentals of instructing;
(ii) Technical subject areas;
(iii) Preflight preparation;
(iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be performed in flight;
(v) Preflight procedures;
(vi) Airport and heliport operations;
(vii) Hovering maneuvers;
(viii) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(ix) Fundamentals of flight;
(x) Performance maneuvers;
(xi) Emergency operations;
(xii) Special operations; and
(xiii) Postflight procedures.

(4) For a rotorcraft category rating with a gyroplane class rating:

(i) Fundamentals of instructing;
(ii) Technical subject areas;
(iii) Preflight preparation;
(iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be performed in flight;
(v) Preflight procedures;
(vi) Airport operations;
(vii) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(viii) Fundamentals of flight;
(ix) Performance maneuvers;
(x) Flight at slow airspeeds;
(xi) Ground reference maneuvers;
(xii) Emergency operations; and
(xiii) Postflight procedures.

(5) For a powered-lift category rating:

(i) Fundamentals of instructing;
(ii) Technical subject areas;
(iii) Preflight preparation;
(iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be performed in flight;
(v) Preflight procedures;
(vi) Airport and heliport operations;
(vii) Hovering maneuvers;
(viii) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(ix) Fundamentals of flight;
(x) Performance maneuvers;
(xi) Ground reference maneuvers;
(xii) Slow flight and stalls;
(xiii) Basic instrument maneuvers;
(xiv) Emergency operations;
(xv) Special operations; and
(xvi) Postflight procedures.

(6) For a glider category rating:

(i) Fundamentals of instructing;
(ii) Technical subject areas;
(iii) Preflight preparation;
(iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be performed in flight;
(v) Preflight procedures;
(vi) Airport and gliderport operations;
(vii) Launches and landings;
(viii) Fundamentals of flight;
(ix) Performance speeds;
(x) Soaring techniques;
(xi) Performance maneuvers;
(xii) Slow flight, stalls, and spins;
(xiii) Emergency operations; and
(xiv) Postflight procedures.

(7) For an instrument rating with the appropriate aircraft category and class rating:

(i) Fundamentals of instructing;
(ii) Technical subject areas;
(iii) Preflight preparation;
(iv) Preflight lesson on a maneuver to be performed in flight;
(v) Air traffic control clearances and procedures;
(vi) Flight by reference to instruments;
(vii) Navigation aids;
(viii) Instrument approach procedures;
(ix) Emergency operations; and
(x) Postflight procedures.

(c) The flight training required by this section may be accomplished:

(1) In an aircraft that is representative of the category and class of aircraft for the rating sought; or

(2) In a flight simulator or flight training device representative of the category and class of aircraft for the rating sought, and used in accordance with an approved course at a training center certificated under part 142 of this chapter.

§ 61.189 Flight instructor records.

(a) A flight instructor must sign the logbook of each person to whom that instructor has given flight training or ground training.

(b) A flight instructor must maintain a record in a logbook or a separate document that contains the following:

(1) The name of each person whose logbook that instructor has endorsed for solo flight privileges, and the date of the endorsement; and

(2) The name of each person that instructor has endorsed for a knowledge test or practical test, and the record shall also indicate the kind of test, the date, and the results.

(c) Each flight instructor must retain the records required by this section for at least 3 years.

§ 61.191 Additional flight instructor ratings.

(a) A person who applies for an additional flight instructor rating on a flight instructor certificate must meet the eligibility requirements listed in § 61.183 of this part that apply to the flight instructor rating sought.

(b) A person who applies for an additional rating on a flight instructor certificate is not required to pass the knowledge test on the areas listed in § 61.185(a)(1) of this part.

§ 61.193 Flight instructor privileges.

(a) A person who holds a flight instructor certificate is authorized within the limitations of that person's flight instructor certificate and ratings to train and issue endorsements that are required for:

(1) A student pilot certificate;

(2) A pilot certificate;

(3) A flight instructor certificate;

(4) A ground instructor certificate;

(5) An aircraft rating;

(6) An instrument rating;

(7) A flight review, operating privilege, or recency of experience requirement of this part;

(8) A practical test; and

(9) A knowledge test.

(b) A person who holds a flight instructor certificate is authorized, in a form and manner acceptable to the Administrator, to:

(1) Accept an application for a student pilot certificate or, for an applicant who holds a pilot certificate (other than a student pilot certificate) issued under part 61 of this chapter and meets the flight review requirements specified in § 61.56, a remote pilot certificate with a small UAS rating;

(2) Verify the identity of the applicant; and

(3) Verify that an applicant for a student pilot certificate meets the eligibility requirements in § 61.83 or an applicant for a remote pilot certificate with a small UAS rating meets the eligibility requirements in § 107.61 of this chapter.

§ 61.195 Flight instructor limitations and qualifications.

A person who holds a flight instructor certificate is subject to the following limitations:

(a) Hours of training. In any 24-consecutive-hour period, a flight instructor may not conduct more than 8 hours of flight training.

(b) Aircraft ratings. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a flight instructor may not conduct flight training in any aircraft unless the flight instructor:

(1) Holds a flight instructor certificate with the applicable category and class rating;

(2) Holds a pilot certificate with the applicable category and class rating; and

(3) Meets the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section, if applicable.

(c) Instrument rating. A flight instructor may conduct instrument training for the issuance of an instrument rating, a type rating not limited to VFR, or the instrument training required for commercial pilot and airline transport pilot certificates if the following requirements are met:

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the flight instructor must hold an instrument rating appropriate to the aircraft used for the instrument training on his or her flight instructor certificate, and -

(i) Meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section; or
(ii) Hold a commercial pilot certificate or airline transport pilot certificate with the appropriate category and class ratings for the aircraft in which the instrument training is conducted provided the pilot receiving instrument training holds a pilot certificate with category and class ratings appropriate to the aircraft in which the instrument training is being conducted.

(2) If the flight instructor is conducting the instrument training in a multiengine airplane, the flight instructor must hold an instrument rating appropriate to the aircraft used for the instrument training on his or her flight instructor certificate and meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section.

(d) Limitations on endorsements. A flight instructor may not endorse a:

(1) Student pilot's logbook for solo flight privileges, unless that flight instructor has -

(i) Given that student the flight training required for solo flight privileges required by this part; and
(ii) Determined that the student is prepared to conduct the flight safely under known circumstances, subject to any limitations listed in the student's logbook that the instructor considers necessary for the safety of the flight.

(2) Student pilot's logbook for a solo cross-country flight, unless that flight instructor has determined the student's flight preparation, planning, equipment, and proposed procedures are adequate for the proposed flight under the existing conditions and within any limitations listed in the logbook that the instructor considers necessary for the safety of the flight;

(3) Student pilot's logbook for solo flight in a Class B airspace area or at an airport within Class B airspace unless that flight instructor has -

(i) Given that student ground and flight training in that Class B airspace or at that airport; and
(ii) Determined that the student is proficient to operate the aircraft safely.

(4) Logbook of a recreational pilot, unless that flight instructor has -

(i) Given that pilot the ground and flight training required by this part; and
(ii) Determined that the recreational pilot is proficient to operate the aircraft safely.

(5) Logbook of a pilot for a flight review, unless that instructor has conducted a review of that pilot in accordance with the requirements of § 61.56(a) of this part; or

(6) Logbook of a pilot for an instrument proficiency check, unless that instructor has tested that pilot in accordance with the requirements of § 61.57(d) of this part.

(e) Training in an aircraft that requires a type rating. A flight instructor may not give flight instruction, including instrument training, in an aircraft that requires the pilot in command to hold a type rating unless the flight instructor holds a type rating for that aircraft on his or her pilot certificate.

(f) Training received in a multiengine airplane, a helicopter, or a powered-lift. A flight instructor may not give training required for the issuance of a certificate or rating in a multiengine airplane, a helicopter, or a powered-lift unless that flight instructor has at least 5 flight hours of pilot-in-command time in the specific make and model of multiengine airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift, as appropriate.

(g) Position in aircraft and required pilot stations for providing flight training.

(1) A flight instructor must perform all training from in an aircraft that complies with the requirements of § 91.109 of this chapter.

(2) A flight instructor who provides flight training for a pilot certificate or rating issued under this part must provide that flight training in an aircraft that meets the following requirements -

(i) The aircraft must have at least two pilot stations and be of the same category, class, and type, if appropriate, that applies to the pilot certificate or rating sought.
(ii) For single-place aircraft, the pre-solo flight training must have been provided in an aircraft that has two pilot stations and is of the same category, class, and type, if appropriate.

(h) Qualifications of the flight instructor for training first-time flight instructor applicants.

(1) The ground training provided to an initial applicant for a flight instructor certificate must be given by an authorized instructor who -

(i) Holds a ground or flight instructor certificate with the appropriate rating, has held that certificate for at least 24 calendar months, and has given at least 40 hours of ground training; or
(ii) Holds a ground or flight instructor certificate with the appropriate rating, and has given at least 100 hours of ground training in an FAA-approved course.

(2) Except for an instructor who meets the requirements of paragraph (h)(3)(ii) of this section, a flight instructor who provides training to an initial applicant for a flight instructor certificate must -

(i) Meet the eligibility requirements prescribed in § 61.183 of this part;
(ii) Hold the appropriate flight instructor certificate and rating;
(iii) Have held a flight instructor certificate for at least 24 months;
(iv) For training in preparation for an airplane, rotorcraft, or powered-lift rating, have given at least 200 hours of flight training as a flight instructor; and
(v) For training in preparation for a glider rating, have given at least 80 hours of flight training as a flight instructor.

(3) A flight instructor who serves as a flight instructor in an FAA-approved course for the issuance of a flight instructor rating must hold a flight instructor certificate with the appropriate rating and pass the required initial and recurrent flight instructor proficiency tests, in accordance with the requirements of the part under which the FAA-approved course is conducted, and must -

(i) Meet the requirements of paragraph (h)(2) of this section; or
(ii) Have trained and endorsed at least five applicants for a practical test for a pilot certificate, flight instructor certificate, ground instructor certificate, or an additional rating, and at least 80 percent of those applicants passed that test on their first attempt; and

(A) Given at least 400 hours of flight training as a flight instructor for training in an airplane, a rotorcraft, or for a powered-lift rating; or
(B) Given at least 100 hours of flight training as a flight instructor, for training in a glider rating.

(i) Prohibition against self-endorsements. A flight instructor shall not make any self-endorsement for a certificate, rating, flight review, authorization, operating privilege, practical test, or knowledge test that is required by this part.

(j) Additional qualifications required to give training in Category II or Category III operations. A flight instructor may not give training in Category II or Category III operations unless the flight instructor has been trained and tested in Category II or Category III operations, pursuant to § 61.67 or § 61.68 of this part, as applicable.

(k) Training for night vision goggle operations. A flight instructor may not conduct training for night vision goggle operations unless the flight instructor:

(1) Has a pilot and flight instructor certificate with the applicable category and class rating for the training;

(2) If appropriate, has a type rating on his or her pilot certificate for the aircraft;

(3) Is pilot in command qualified for night vision goggle operations, in accordance with § 61.31(k);

(4) Has logged 100 night vision goggle operations as the sole manipulator of the controls;

(5) Has logged 20 night vision goggle operations as the sole manipulator of the controls in the category and class, and type of aircraft, if aircraft class and type is appropriate, that the training will be given in;

(6) Is qualified to act as pilot in command in night vision goggle operations under § 61.57(f) or (g); and

(7) Has a logbook endorsement from an FAA Aviation Safety Inspector or a person who is authorized by the FAA to provide that logbook endorsement that states the flight instructor is authorized to perform the night vision goggle pilot in command qualification and recent flight experience requirements under § 61.31(k) and § 61.57(f) and (g).

(l) Training on control and maneuvering an aircraft solely by reference to the instruments. A flight instructor may conduct flight training on control and maneuvering an airplane solely by reference to the flight instruments, provided the flight instructor -

(1) Holds a flight instructor certificate with the applicable category and class rating; or

(2) Holds an instrument rating appropriate to the aircraft used for the training on his or her flight instructor certificate, and holds a commercial pilot certificate or airline transport pilot certificate with the appropriate category and class ratings for the aircraft in which the training is conducted provided the pilot receiving the training holds a pilot certificate with category and class ratings appropriate to the aircraft in which the training is being conducted.

§ 61.197 Renewal requirements for flight instructor certification.

(a) A person who holds a flight instructor certificate that has not expired may renew that flight instructor certificate by -

(1) Passing a practical test for -

(i) One of the ratings listed on the current flight instructor certificate; or
(ii) An additional flight instructor rating; or

(2) Submitting a completed and signed application with the FAA and satisfactorily completing one of the following renewal requirements -

(i) A record of training students showing that, during the preceding 24 calendar months, the flight instructor has endorsed at least 5 students for a practical test for a certificate or rating and at least 80 percent of those students passed that test on the first attempt.
(ii) A record showing that, within the preceding 24 calendar months, the flight instructor has served as a company check pilot, chief flight instructor, company check airman, or flight instructor in a part 121 or part 135 operation, or in a position involving the regular evaluation of pilots.
(iii) A graduation certificate showing that, within the preceding 3 calendar months, the person has successfully completed an approved flight instructor refresher course consisting of ground training or flight training, or a combination of both.
(iv) A record showing that, within the preceding 24 months from the month of application, the flight instructor passed an official U.S. Armed Forces military instructor pilot or pilot examiner proficiency check in an aircraft for which the military instructor already holds a rating or in an aircraft for an additional rating.

(b) The expiration month of a renewed flight instructor certificate shall be 24 calendar months from -

(1) The month the renewal requirements of paragraph (a) of this section are accomplished; or

(2) The month of expiration of the current flight instructor certificate provided -

(i) The renewal requirements of paragraph (a) of this section are accomplished within the 3 calendar months preceding the expiration month of the current flight instructor certificate, and
(ii) If the renewal is accomplished under paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section, the approved flight instructor refresher course must be completed within the 3 calendar months preceding the expiration month of the current flight instructor certificate.

(c) The practical test required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be accomplished in a full flight simulator or flight training device if the test is accomplished pursuant to an approved course conducted by a training center certificated under part 142 of this chapter.

§ 61.199 Reinstatement requirements of an expired flight instructor certificate.

(a) Flight instructor certificates. The holder of an expired flight instructor certificate who has not complied with the flight instructor renewal requirements of § 61.197 may reinstate that flight instructor certificate and ratings by filing a completed and signed application with the FAA and satisfactorily completing one of the following reinstatement requirements:

(1) A flight instructor certification practical test, as prescribed by § 61.183(h), for one of the ratings held on the expired flight instructor certificate.

(2) A flight instructor certification practical test for an additional rating.

(3) For military instructor pilots, provide a record showing that, within the preceding 6 calendar months from the date of application for reinstatement, the person -

(i) Passed a U.S. Armed Forces instructor pilot or pilot examiner proficiency check; or
(ii) Completed a U.S. Armed Forces' instructor pilot or pilot examiner training course and received an additional aircraft rating qualification as a military instructor pilot or pilot examiner that is appropriate to the flight instructor rating sought.

(b) Flight instructor ratings.

(1) A flight instructor rating or a limited flight instructor rating on a pilot certificate is no longer valid and may not be exchanged for a similar rating or a flight instructor certificate.

(2) The holder of a flight instructor rating or a limited flight instructor rating on a pilot certificate may be issued a flight instructor certificate with the current ratings, but only if the person passes the required knowledge and practical test prescribed in this subpart for the issuance of the current flight instructor certificate and rating.

(c) Certain military instructors and examiners. The holder of an expired flight instructor certificate issued prior to October 20, 2009, may apply for reinstatement of that certificate by presenting the following:

(1) A record showing that, since the date the flight instructor certificate was issued, the person passed a U.S. Armed Forces instructor pilot or pilot examiner proficiency check for an additional military rating; and

(2) A knowledge test report that shows the person passed a knowledge test on the aeronautical knowledge areas listed under § 61.185(a) appropriate to the flight instructor rating sought and the knowledge test was passed within the preceding 24 calendar months prior to the month of application.

(d) Expiration date. The requirements of paragraph (c) of this section will expire on August 26, 2019.


Flight Instructor Test Questions

Flight Instruction

Prior to solo flight, the flight instructor is required to endorse the student's logbook and pilot certificate. (61.87)

A student is required to have his/her pilot certificate endorsed by a flight instructor for each make and model of aircraft to be flown solo. (61.87)

Which is a required endorsement by an authorized flight instructor for a student pilot to operate an aircraft in solo flight? An endorsement within the preceding 90 days stating that instruction was given in the make and model aircraft to be flown and the student is competent to make a safe solo flight. (61.87)

A student pilot whose pilot certificate is not endorsed by a flight instructor to make solo cross-country flights is prohibited from flying solo beyond what distance from the point of departure? 25 NM. (61.93)

One requirement for a student pilot to be authorized to make a solo cross-country flight is an endorsement in the student's logbook that the preflight planning and preparation has been reviewed and the student is prepared to make the flight safely. (61.93)

Are students authorized to make repeated solo cross-country flights without each flight being logbook endorsed? Yes, provided the flights take place under stipulated conditions. (61.93)
— An instructor may endorse a student pilot's logbook for repeated solo cross-country flights under stipulated conditions over a course of not more than 50 nautical miles from the point of departure if he/she has given the student flight instruction in both directions over the route, including takeoffs and landings at the airports to be used.

May repeated solo cross-country flights over the same route be made by a student without receiving an endorsement from a flight instructor for each flight? Yes, if the route is no more than 50 NM from the point of departure and instruction was given in both directions over the route. (61.93)

Prior to solo flight, a student must have received flight instruction in ground reference maneuvers. (61.87)
— Prior to solo, a student must have received and logged instruction in the maneuvers and procedures listed in paragraphs (d) through (j) of 61.87.

Your student is not interested in flying at night. May he/she take the practical test for a private pilot certificate without any night flight training? No. Your student must have logged at least 3 hours of night flight training in order to be issued a certificate.

What minimum pilot certificate will permit a pilot to enter Class B airspace? Student Pilot Certificate with an appropriate endorsement. (61.95)

Who is authorized to endorse a student pilot logbook authorizing flight in Class B airspace? Only the flight instructor who has conducted the training. (61.95)

To operate an aircraft on a solo flight within Class B airspace, a student must have a logbook endorsement showing that (s)he has received ground instruction on and flight instruction in that specific airspace for which solo flight is authorized. (61.95)

Your student, who is preparing for a private pilot practical test in a single-engine airplane, received 3.5 hours of cross-country flight training, including flights of 1.9 hours, 1.0 hours, and .6 hours. Is your student eligible to take the practical test? Yes.

What night flight training is required for an unrestricted private pilot certificate with an airplane rating? 3 hours to include 10 takeoffs and 10 landings and one cross-country flight of over 100 nautical miles.
—An applicant for a private pilot certificate with an airplane rating must have 3 hours of night flight training that includes one cross-country flight of over 100 NM, and 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop at an airport, with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern.

Your student has received 3.0 hours of night flight training including five takeoffs and landings. Is your student eligible to take the private pilot practical test? No.
—The applicant must have 10 takeoffs and 10 landings at night, as well as a night cross-country of over 100 NM.

With respect to day cross-country experience requirements, a private pilot-airplane application must have a minimum of 3 hours dual and 5 hours solo.

Can any of a private pilot's airplane flight training apply to meet requirements for adding a helicopter rating? Some of the airplane training will apply to helicopter experience.
—To add a helicopter rating to a private pilot certificate, the applicant must have 20 hours of flight training from a helicopter instructor, including hours logged cross-country, night, and in preparation for the flight test.

A student has a private pilot certificate with an airplane rating. Does s/he need to fulfill all of the experience requirements for an initial private pilot certificate with a helicopter rating to add a helicopter rating to his/her certificate? No. Some of the dual flight training experience will apply toward the helicopter requirements.

An applicant who holds a Commercial Pilot Certificate with ASEL ratings is seeking a MEL rating at the commercial level. On August 1, 2020, the applicant shows you a second class medical dated January 2, 2019. May the applicant take the practical test? Yes, but at the private pilot skill level. (61.39)
— A second-class medical certificate is required for commercial privileges. Only a third-class medical is required when adding a rating to an existing certificate.

If all increments for a practical test for a certificate or rating are not completed on one date, all remaining increments must be satisfactorily completed no later than 60 days from the date of the test. (61.43)

To be eligible for a practical test under 14 CFR Part 61, an applicant must have passed the appropriate knowledge test (when required) within the preceding 24 calendar months. (61.39)

If all increments for a practical test for a certificate or rating are not completed on one date, all remaining increments must be satisfactorily completed no later than 60 days from the date of the test. (61.43)

A written statement from an authorized instructor certifying that an applicant has received the required training in preparation for a practical test must be dated within what period of time preceding the date of application? 2 calendar months. (61.39)

What is one requirement for an aircraft furnished for a practical test? Must have no prescribed operating limitations that prohibit its use in any required area of operation. (61.45)
— Dual controls are not necessary if the examiner determines the test can be conducted safely without them.

Your student took a practical test for a pilot certificate on January 10 and failed to meet standards. After being retested on January 13 and failing to meet standards again, when is your student eligible to re-test? January 13. (61.49)
— Trick question. There is no secondary time limit. The test may be retaken after the necessary training and endorsement.

An applicant who fails a pilot knowledge test for the first time may apply for retesting after presenting an endorsement from an authorized instructor certifying that additional training has been given and the applicant is competent to pass the test. (61.49)

An applicant has failed a knowledge test for the second time. With training and an endorsement from an authorized instructor, when may the applicant apply for a re-test? Immediately. (61.49)

An applicant who fails a practical test for the second time may apply for retesting after receiving the necessary instruction and an endorsement from an authorized instructor who gave the training. (61.49)

A student fails his/her practical exam on his/her first attempt. Then s/he fails the test on January 13. When is the earliest s/he can take the test again? Immediately. (61.49)

A flight review will consist of a minimum of 1 hour ground training and 1 hour flight training. (61.56)

Flight Instructors

A person whose Flight Instructor Certificate has been suspended may not apply for any rating to be added to that Certificate during the period of suspension. (61.13)

What is the duration of a Flight Instructor Certificate? 24 months after the month in which it was issued or renewed. (61.19)

The type and date of each student pilot endorsement given shall be maintained by each flight instructor. For what period of time is this record required to be retained? 3 years. (61.189, 61.423)

During any 24 consecutive hours, an instructor is limited to how many hours of flight training? 8 hours. (61.195, 61.415)

To endorse a student pilot for solo cross-country privileges, an instructor is required, in part, to have determined that that student's preparation, planning, and procedures are adequate for the proposed flight under the existing conditions. (61.195, 61.415)

To endorse a student pilot's logbook for solo flight, an instructor is required, in part, to have given the student flight training in the type of aircraft involved. (61.195, 61.415)

The holder of an expired Flight Instructor Certificate may exchange that certificate for a new one by passing the appropriate practical test. (61.199, 61.405)
— A flight test is required after a flight instructor certificate has expired.

A Flight Instructor Certificate may be renewed by successfully completing a flight instructor refresher course within 3 calendar months prior to renewal. (61.197)

Certain flight training is required for the issuance of a certificate. If that instruction is in a helicopter or multi-engine airplane, the instructor is required to have at least 5 hours of experience as pilot in command in the make and model of the aircraft involved. (61.195)

The minimum pilot-in-command time requirement for a flight instructor with multi-engine privileges to give training to a student for a multi-engine rating is 5 hours in the make and model of aircraft in which training is to be given. (61.195)

What requirements must an authorized instructor meet in order to prepare an applicant for an initial Flight Instructor Certificate? Held a Flight Instructor Certificate for at least 24 months and given a minimum of 200 hours of flight training. (61.195)

A flight instructor who applies for an additional rating on that certificate must have a minimum of how many hours as pilot in command in the category and class of aircraft appropriate to the rating sought? 15. (61.183)

Which training time must be certified by the instructor from whom it was received? All flight training, flight simulator training, and ground training. (61.51)
— Training and experience used to meet the requirements of a certificate, rating, or flight review/recent flight experience must be shown by a reliable record. The logging of other flight time is not required.

A flight instructor who has not satisfactorily accomplished a flight review or passed a required proficiency check within the prescribed time is not authorized to fly solo. (61.56)

To act as pilot in command of an airplane that has more than 200 horsepower, a person holding a Private or Commercial Pilot Certificate is required to receive ground and flight training in an airplane that has more than 200 horsepower. (61.31)

To act as pilot in command of an airplane with retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable propeller, a person holding a Private or Commercial Pilot Certificate is required to receive ground and flight training in such an airplane, and obtain a logbook endorsement of proficiency. (61.31)

No person may act as pilot in command of a pressurized airplane with a service ceiling or maximum operating altitude, whichever is lower, above 25,000 feet unless that person has received ground and flight training in high-altitude operations and a logbook endorsement certifying the training. (61.31)

What minimum documentation is required to take an FAA knowledge test for any flight instructor rating? Proper identification. (61.35)

A written statement from an authorized instructor certifying that an applicant has received the required training in preparation for a practical test must be dated within how many days preceding the date of application? 60 days. (61.39)

A flight instructor applicant must demonstrate spins in an airplane or glider when being retested for deficiencies in instructional proficiency on stall awareness or spins demonstrated during an initial test. (61.49)

Who is responsible for administering the required knowledge test to a student prior to solo flight? The student's authorized instructor. (61.87)

What subjects must be covered on the presolo knowledge test? Applicable regulations, flight characteristics, and operational limitations of make and model aircraft to be flown. (61.87)

What documents must a flight instructor have on board when conducting instruction for a private pilot applicant? Pilot certificate, flight instructor certificate, medical certificate. (61.3)

Ground Instructors

The holder of a Ground Instructor Certificate with a basic rating is authorized to provide ground training required for all aeronautical knowledge areas for a recreational for private pilot certificate. (61.215)

The holder of a Ground Instructor Certificate with an advanced rating is authorized to provide ground training in aeronautical knowledge areas for any pilot certificate or rating (except the instrument rating). (61.215)

The holder of a Ground Instructor Certificate with an advanced rating is authorized to provide ground training required for any flight review. (61.215)

The holder of a Ground Instructor Certificate may not exercise the privileges of that certificate may not exercise the privileges of that certificate unless that person has served as a ground instructor within the preceding 12 months. (61.217)
— The person may also receive an endorsement from an authorized flight or ground instructor certifying that the person has demonstrated satisfactory proficiency in the subject areas required for a ground instructor.

Commercial/ATP

A Second-Class Medical Certificate issued January 18 of this year will expire January 31 of next year for commercial pilot privileges. (61.23)

If a Second-Class Medical Certificate was issued to a commercial pilot 13 months ago, during the next 11 months this pilot may act as pilot in command and carry passengers or property, but not for compensation or hire. (61.23)

What is the minimum age required to be eligible for a commercial pilot certificate? 18.

To be eligible for a commercial pilot certificate, one of the valid requirements is for the applicant to hold at least a valid third-class medical certificate.
—A second-class medical certificate is required to exercise the privileges of a commercial pilot certificate. A third-class medical certificate is required for all checkrides (except Sport Pilot).

As a pilot, what is the minimum flight time in an aircraft an applicant must have for a commercial pilot certificate with an airplane rating? 200 hours.
—Although 250 hours total time required, up to 50 may be instruction in a simulator. Sort of a trick question.

An applicant for a commercial pilot certificate with ASEL ratings presents a logbook with 254 hours total time. Of that, 20 hours are logged as SIC in single-engine airplanes certificated for single-pilot operations. You determine this time was accumulated as a safety pilot with another pilot who was flying "under the hood." Does the applicant have enough total time to be eligible for the practical test? Yes.
—Safety pilot time counts toward the flight hours requirement of the certificate.

Under FAR Part 61, a commercial pilot-airplane applicant is required to have a minimum of how much cross-country experience? 50 hours.

What limitation is imposed on a newly certificated commercial airplane pilot if that person does not hold an instrument pilot rating? The carrying of passengers for hire on cross-county flights is limited to 50 NM or at night is prohibited.

A flight review is not required if the pilot has completed, within the time specified, a pilot proficiency check conducted by the FAA. (61.56)

A flight review will consist of a minimum of 1 hour ground training and 1 hour flight training. (61.56)

What flight time must be recorded by a pilot exercising the privileges of a commercial certificate? Only the flight time necessary to meet the recent flight experience requirements. (61.51)

What recent flight experience must be met before a commercial airplane pilot may fly solo in an airplane? Satisfactorily accomplished a flight review in any aircraft for which rated in the preceding 24 calendar months. (61.56)

Which of the following normally requires the pilot in command to hold a type rating? Any turbojet-powered aircraft. (61.31)

What restriction is imposed regarding flight instruction of other pilots in air transportation service by an airline transport pilot? 36 hours in any 7-day period. (61.167)
— This is a restriction of the 8-hour rule, when applied to a five-day work-week. Per the 8-hour rule, a pilot could fly eight hours per day in a typical work-week, or 40 hours. However, the FAA restricts this amount to 36 hours for ATP instruction.

Robert Wederquist   CP-ASEL - AGI - IGI
Commercial Pilot • Instrument Pilot
Advanced Ground Instructor • Instrument Ground Instructor